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The present situation and prospect of airport development in tourist city
2020-03-14 21:08
以下题目为“旅游城市机场发展现状与展望”的英语论文范文:
Abstract:As one of the three pillar industries of tourism, transportation has a crucial impact on the development of Tourism. The development of transportation technology has greatly promoted the development of tourism, and the quality of the traffic situation has a direct impact on the choice of tourist destination. At the same time, the promotion role of the civil aviation industry to tourism, or the promotion of tourism to civil aviation transportation has become a hot topic. Taking Kunming Changshui International Airport as the research object, and by comparing with other foreign tourist cities, this paper expounds the characteristics and development status of domestic tourist city civil aviation transportation, as well as the promotion of tourism industry to the development of civil aviation industry.
Key words: Tourism; Kunming Changshui airport; Development
I.Introduction
With the continuous improvement of China's market economic system, the important position of tourism in China has become increasingly prominent. Traffic has a great impact on the development of tourism, but at the same time, tourism has played a significant role in promoting the development of transportation. Taking air transport and railway development for example: the main advantages of air travel are comfort and quick. As one of the main ways of modern mass tourism, the development of aviation industry is largely dependent on the development of tourism, which is a special case in aviation history.Air transport is more closely related to the entry of foreign tourists and travel between major cities. In recent years, scholars at home and abroad have made a lot of analysis on the relationship between tourism and transportation, Such as J. P. Hanlon on the large transport hub network, especially the hub configuration of the airport were analyzed in depth[1].
From the demand side, traffic is a prerequisite for tourists to complete tourism activities.When tourists travel, they must solve the problem of the space transfer from the place of settlement to the destination of tourism. The travel itinerary itself is part of the tourism activities, and the use of different travel time is also a good time to consider and solve the problem.
From the supply side, traffic is the lifeblood of the development of the tourism industry, and the tourism industry is dependent on tourists visiting the survival and development of the industry. Only in the tourism destination can be entered so that visitors can greatly and often visit the circumstances, the tourism industry will continue to be expanded and developed.
From the perspective of tourism income, transportation industry as the important department of tourism, tourism itself is an important source of income and tourism. In any country, domestic tourism income, transportation occupies the proportion of breakthrough. Statistics show that Europe and the United States tourists to travel in China, the cost of its transportation expenses (including international round-trip transportation costs and transportation costs incurred in China's tourism) tend to account for more than half of its travel costs.
Civil aviation and tourism has been an inseparable topic for the development of civil aviation, tourism industry plays a positive role in promoting, and the increase of tourists and tourism for civil aviation has a positive role in pulling, many popular routes are routes to tourist hotpots or by tourist charter flights to fly.
In recent years, the rapid development of the tourism industry has greatly promoted the development of the aviation industry. Obviously the mutual influence between civil aviation and Tourism: civil aviation to the development of the tourism city plays a positive role in promoting, and the increase of tourists and tourist city for civil aviation has a positive role in pulling[2]. Many countries in the organization of tour operators, travel packages, especially a package of international tourism, use the Charter as the main way to travel. In Europe and the United States, IT has closed relations of cooperation with large scale tourism many operators who have their own charter company or with business charter business airlines. In China, a lot of attractive attractions or cities have charter flights. In 2001, Beijing's ability to travel agencies have launched a charter flight to Phuket Island. Travel and domestic travel agency organization of the charter is even beyond count. During International labor day’s holiday in 2002, the number of Beijing outbound and domestic tourism charter flights reached more than 100 sorties.
Today, tourism charter has become an indispensable way during each golden week. In addition, regardless of weather a civil aviation discount tickets, a fact that has been placed in the first, more and more tourism people began to choose to travel by air. The development of the tourism industry has greatly promoted the development of the air transport industry
Traffic provides the necessary conditions for the development of tourism, tourism has played a considerable role in promoting the development of transportation. However, in some areas where has rich resources in tourism, poor traffic has become a constraint on their travel tourism development bottleneck.
In this paper, there are four parts. In the first part, it’s the brief introduction of this paper. In the second part, we will analyze and expound the current situation of domestic tourist city airport and the foreign tourist city airport. In the second part, we mainly present the surrent situation of tourist city airport in China and abroad.In the third part, It’s about the Analysis of Current Situation of the Development of Kunming Changshui International Airport. The introduction of Changshui International airport and the Comparison with Heathrow airport. By all the analysis has been shown, we make the prospect of Kunming Changshui International airport. At last,we come to the Conclusion of this paper.

II.Current Situation of Tourist City Airport

With the development of world economy and Science&technology, the traditional sense of the “airport” is changed from a ground for placing the airplane into the carriage of passenger, cargo transportation station. And it gradually developed into an important transportation hub. Now, the airport has developed into a large-scale, diversified three-dimensional transport hub, which has become an important part of the city’s political and economic, has been combined with all level of society in the organic together.
After entering 21 Century, China's economic development has been into the fast development track. Sustained rapid growth of the national economy, strong demand for air transport, civil airport construction set off a new round of development climax. Central and local governments continue to increase investment in civil airport construction, and gradually expand the airport construction financing channels. Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, the three hub airport's central position has become increasingly prominent; The role of backbone for some airport has been enhance, such as Kunming, Chengdu, Shenzhen, Xi'an, Wuhan and other important cities. Construction of the airport is tilted to the middle and the western areas.
A. Domestic Tourist City Airport
In 1980, China's civil aviation transport has been a long time since the establishment of the army, embarked on the road of industrialization. From 1987 to 1992, China's civil aviation transport industry in the management, airlines and airports separated the three layer management system reform, in the industry caused a competitive mechanism. Followed by a number of local governments to invest in the main airlines have been established, a number of civil aviation enterprises to carry out joint-stock reform and successful listing. Especially since the beginning of 2002, China's civil aviation transport industry has been the most extensive since its establishment, the most talked about physical reform. October 2002, China International Airlines Group, China Eastern Airlines Corporation and China Southern Air Holding Co in the Civil Aviation Administration through the reorganization was established. Coupled with the local government management of Hainan Airlines Group, Shenzhen Airlines Group, etc. Now China has formed a new air transport business layout.
According to the objectives set by the National Tourism Administration, by 2020, the number of Chinese Inbound tourism will reach 210 million passengers, total tourism revenue will be more than $300 billion, accounting for more than 8% of the total GDP. The development of the tourism industry will provide a huge consumer groups and a broad market space for the development of air transport. Although civil aviation and tourism is a win-win relationship, but now the development of tourism to a certain extent, especially in terms of access is also subject to the development of Civil Aviation. Many small and medium-sized airports in the region are famous tourist attractions, because there is no direct flights, access is not convenient, visitors can only rely on road, rail and other means of transport, the results of good products, good price, good destination, or "raised in purdah no knowledge."
In Yunnan, a tourist province, rich tourism resources and tourism festivals,Tourism trade fair and other activities to Yunnan branch of China Eastern Airlines has brought a wealth of tourists, Modern tourism will be the size of today, the scope of its activities will be extended to all over the world,an important reason is also due to the development of modern transportation, with the advent of modern vehicles, such as cars, aircraft, and greatly solve the problem of people traveling in space. So that the time can be shortened, so as to provide a new convenient conditions for long-distance travel.
The Comparison of tourism development index in the eastern and western regions of China
  City Domestic tourism income
(billion ¥)
Overseas tourism income
(billion ¥)
Reception number (Million ¥)
Eastern Beijing 93.15 3.1 1185.7
Tianjin 2.86 0.28 396.8
Hebei 23.44 0.16 535.6
Shanghai 80.58 1.83 825.4
Liaoning 27.4 0.46 505.8
Jiangsu 67.58 0.82 825.8
Zhejiang 58.7 0.7 704.2
Fujian 26.77 0.92 348.5
Shandong 46.26 0.38 816.8
Guangdong 126.83 4.48 1445.8
Hainan 7.91 0.11 112.5
Total   591.89 13.54 815.59
         
Western Sichuan 30.02 0.17 639.2
Guizhou 7.58 0.07 212.1
Yunnan 22.6 0.37 468
Xizang 0.75 0.05 6.9
Shanxi 14.2 0.31 344
Chongqing 17.76 0.16 398.1
Gansu 2.49 0.04 86.1
Ningxia 1.1 0.03 28.1
Qinghai 1.33 0.01 37.4
Xinzhang 7.18 0.1 88.2
Total   105.01 1.31 2308.1
   From the above study, we can see that the regional differences of China's airport pattern and regional differences in the distribution of tourism resources basically coincide, which means that the number of airports, the density and the inclination of the network are better in the areas with better development of tourism resources. However, there is a great conflict between the airport structure and the natural distribution of tourism resources, which is reflected in the natural and cultural tourism resources in the western region. Western tourism resources accounted for about 64% of the total in the country, accounting for more than 87% of the tourism resources in the country, but the airport pattern is obviously unbalanced[3]. Specific to the regional analysis, the interaction between the three airports and the distribution of tourism resources in the eastern region showed some differences. The polarization effect of Beijing and Guangzhou is obvious, showing strong central attraction. But Shanghai in the Yangtze River Delta region is not obvious, which is a situation of tripartite confrontation with Zhejiang and Jiangsu. There are also differences between the four major aviation hub in the West. Taking Urumqi as the core of the Xinjiang airport network of tourism income is very small, so the local airport for more in the administrative and economic functions. However, Kunming, Chengdu and Xi'an are in good agreement with the distribution of local tourism resources. At present, the key factor restricting the development of the tourism industry in the western minority areas is the transportation problem in the infrastructure construction[3].
In 2016, China Civil Aviation Airport (certification) a total of 218 (excluding Hongkong, Macao and Taiwan, hereinafter referred to as domestic airport), among them, regular flights to the airport 216, regular flights navigable City 214. In 2016, the main production indicators of domestic airports to maintain steady and rapid growth (Annual passenger throughput exceeded 1 billion passengers for the first time, completed a total of 1 billion 16 million 357 thousand passengers), it’s about a growth of 11.1% over the previous year. Sub routes, domestic routes to complete 914 million 17 thousand passengers, an increase of 10.3% over the previous year (of which the mainland to Hongkong, Macao and Taiwan route to complete the number of passengers, down by 1.4% over the previous year); International routes for the first time exceeded 100 million passengers, completed a total of 102 million 340 thousand passengers, an increase of 19.3%.
B. Foreign Tourist City Airport
Foreign airport started early, so it formed a relatively mature mode of operation and management. There are two kinds of management mode in foreign airports: Management and operation. Reasonable function orientation is an operation management mode in the United States. The government of the United States on the definition of the airport is that “not for the purpose of profit, to provide public goods for the public service varieties, belonging to the city's infrastructure”. The ownership of the airport is owned by the government, and the government is responsible for investment, construction and management; The second is the support of government policies, not only for the airport duty-free, governments at all levels and the Federal Aviation Administration also provides for the construction and operation of the airport; The third is the management of institutions, mostly for the management rather than the management of the airport management agencies, staff streamlined and clear responsibilities, only for the development of the airport development plan, open up routes, responsible for the rental and maintenance of airport facilities. And flexible and diverse airport employment system, so that the degree of socialization of project management significantly improved; The fourth is the franchise bidding, ground services, terminal operations, parking, catering, retail, advertising and other services through the franchise bidding approach outsourcing, the same set of service standards, the implementation of contract management. All of that minimizes the operating costs of the airport and maximize the benefits.
London Heathrow International Airport by the British airport management company (BAA) operates, as British Airways and Virgin Atlantic hub airport and British Airways's main airport, London's main international airport, which is also one of the busiest airports in Britain even in the world. Heathrow International Airport ranked third around the world, only behind Atlanta’s Hartsfield Jackson International Airport and Beijing Capital International Airport. Because there are many cross-border flights to the airport, so traffic cross-border traffic calculation, Heathrow airport is the highest[4]. Till 2004, Heathrow airport is Europe's busiest airport passenger traffic than the Paris Charles Gaulle International Airport and Frankfort International Airport is also higher than 31.5%, but the number of flights is less than 1/3 of the total of the two airports. Heathrow International Airport cooperate with 90 Airlines worldwide, and all the airline can reach to more than 170 airports worldwide. In 2008, passenger throughput has reached 67 million passengers, of which 11% of the domestic passengers, short haul international passengers for the 43%, 46% for long-term international travelers. By the end of 2009, there are 5 airport terminal and a cargo terminal building, which opened in March 27, 2008. In 2010, the opening of its second subsidiary buildings was completed. Recent data show that, in 2012, Heathrow airport passenger throughput reached 69 million 900 thousand passengers.
Heathrow International Airport had 6 runways, divided into three groups of different angles, the terminal building located in the center. With the increase of the length of the runway for provisions, Heathrow Airport currently has two East-West parallel runways. The shorter runway 23 was originally used to cope with the strong southwest wind, but in 2005 has been downgraded to a taxiway. Heathrow airport has become a comprehensive transportation hub from a variety of modes of transportation, in addition to the basic traffic function also has the function to expand more.
III.Analysis of Current Situation of the Development of Kunming Changshui International Airport
A.A Brief Introduction to Kunming Changshui International Airport
Kunming Changshui International Airport, also known as Kunming Airport , formerly known as Kunming Wujiaba International Airport, which is a commercial airport located in Daban Bridge Street Guandu District Changshui village and the village of Yunnan, the capital city of Kunming province Chinese, in Kunming City, 24.5 km northeast.
Kunming Changshui International Airport is managed by the Yunnan Airport Refco Group Ltd, which provides air services to Kunming and its surrounding areas. It’s the only large gateway hub airport which is approved during the country’s “11th Five-year”. It is China’s in the Southwest, which facingn to Southeast Asia, South Asia, and connecting Eurasia.
Kunming Changshui International Airport construction project was set in January 29, 2007 by the State Council and the Central Military Commission approved the project. It was founded in December 11, 2007. In December 5, 2008 new airport officially started construction, and in June 28, 2012 officially put into operation. According to the 4F standard planning, Flying area was built with two parallel runways, the East runway is 4500 meters long, width of 60 meters, the West runway length of 4000 meters, width of 45 meters. Terminal is located at the southern end of the terminal area between the two parallel runways, mainly by the front end of the main building, the front and back sides of the two sides of the gallery, the central finger Gallery, the distal Y type refers to the composition of the gallery. It’s the largest single terminal area[5].
Kunming Changshui International Airport in the design of the practice of the concept of Green Airport. The interior design of the terminal is in line with the characteristics of the large flow of traffic in the airport, while absorbing the experience of domestic and international airport construction, focusing on the performance of the distinctive features of Yunnan Kunming Changshui International Airport. A full range of services is provided, and it has reasonable layout to convenient passengers. At the same time, the material selection is also fully considered in order to adapt to the tight time, high requirements of the specific construction conditions. It is Decorated with gold as the main building main color to gray, ground basic color, make modern elements and Yunnan ethnic characteristics reflect each other.
Over the past 4 years, Kunming Changshui airport opened the results of the industry's attention. Up to now, has opened a total of 284 routes. Among them,there are 224 domestic routes, 54 international routes and 6 regional routes. Kunming airport also opened Paris, Vancouver, 2 Intercontinental routes, there is up to 132 flights every week from Southeast Asia and South Asia. the international level of the airport route network increased significantly. It is expected that by 2020, Kunming Changshui airport passenger throughput will reach 70 million passengers per year.
B.The Tourism’s Influence on Kunming Changshui International Airport
In the past, because of lack of capacity, Wujiaba airport passenger throughput has ranked 7th in the country, which can not meet the domestic and foreign tourists in Yunnan more requirements.Due to the insufficient number of passengers, the advantages of regional aviation of Yunnan province is also not be shown, which also affected the construction of the world tourism destination in Yunnan, but also affected the upgrading of its own service industry in Kunming.
Kunming Changshui International Airport is the fourth gateway hub airport in Beijing, Guangzhou and Shanghai, and the only national gateway hub airport in Western China. Building a strong Kunming Changshui International Airport as Yunnan Economic Zone "core", and laying the airport area "main position", which can not only give full play to the strong power of the radiation from the airport to the outside of the region, but also enable the central Yunnan Economic Zone to have the core base of factor agglomeration. To make success of the national gateway hub to promote the rapid rise of central Yunnan Economic zone through strategic cooperation, scientific planning and pragmatic push.
Kunming Changshui International Airport construction not only reflected in the airport itself, but also to extend to the surrounding, important industry construction, such as tourism delicacy industry, manufacturing industry, logistics industry, IT industry, creative industry, ecological tourism and so on.
Kunming Changshui International Airport construction effectively stimulate the development of surrounding tourism. Huaxi ecological villa is the most typical one. Huaxi ecological village is about 3 km away from Kunming Changshui International Airport. It is the largest and most distinctive Muslim villa in Yunnan province. Now it has formed a leisure farm which is eating, living, playing, sightseeing, meeting and dining.
Kunming Changshui International Airport was built to Huaxi ecological villa has brought great convenient traffic conditions. The airport expressway opened solves the problems of the serious traffic jam in Dabanqiao in the past.
Under the support of Yunnan Provincial department of culture, Huaxi villa will be the construction of ecological leisure reception, which provides convenience on the plane for business people, tourist at home and abroad. It allows them to have a rest, dining, shopping or enjoy the national culture.
Yunnan is one of the most developed provinces in China. "The State Council on supporting Yunnan province to accelerate the construction of an important bridgehead for the southwest open views” pointed out “To construct Kunming Changshui International Airport as western important aviation hub, Lijiang, Xishuangbanna, Dali, Shangri-La, Tengchong, Wenshan and other regional airports is the network assistance for airport distribution.” In fact, Changshui International Airport’s official operation not only can be connected to Southeast Asia, South Asia, West Asia, Europe and the United States and other regions, countries, to protect the needs of tourists to Yunnan tourism and transit. The more important thing is, with Changshui International Airport as the hub, to revitalize Yunnan’s aviation resources, and make Yunnan tourism bigger and stronger. So that, Yunnan has to be a real tourist destination in the world.
C.A Comparison Between Kunming Changshui International Airport with Heathrow Airport
Kunming Changshui airport is the location of the country's major hub airports and contact South Asia, Southeast Asia and other regions of the national Gateway Airport. It is of great significance to accelerate the healthy development of Yunnan's economy and society, and comprehensively promote the construction of the modern new Kunming.
Heathrow airport has become a comprehensive transportation hub from a variety of modes of transportation, in addition to the basic traffic function also has the function to expand more. Large hub airport convergence of various modes of transportation, is no longer a simple terminal for providing services of air transport, a transfer node but passenger travel in the process, the service object includes airline passengers and non-airline[6]. Changshui International airport is a commercial airport located in the Guandu District of the capital city of Kunming province Yunnan Chinese Dabanqiao Street Changshui village and Village Hua Jing, Kunming city in the Northeast 24.5 kilometers. On January 3, 2013, It was a heavy fog, which resulted in 440 flights canceled and resulted in about 7500 passengers stranded.
Heathrow airport is located in the center of London, 22 kilometers west of Hillingdon District, south of the airport runway was east-west, resulting in landing flight must fly over urban areas over 25 meters at low altitude, prone to fog caused by flights. With the development of the airport, the advantages of its excellent traffic location and the flow of a large number of passengers, the airport to promote the diversified development and commercial prosperity, including retail, catering, entertainment, car rental, banking, hotels and other services to passengers in the commercial activities, ground services, office facilities and places, such as services to the airline's business activities, as well as exhibition and other business development activities.
Changshui International airport opened a total of 284 routes, including 224 domestic routes, 54 international routes, 6 regional routes. It is expected that by 2020, Kunming Changshui airport passenger throughput will reach 70 million passengers per year. Heathrow International Airport with 90 Airlines worldwide, which can fly to more than 170 airports worldwide.assengers.
IV.The Development Prospect of Kunming Changshui International Airport
Thomas Bieger and Andreas Wittmer study shows a strong association between aviation industry market and tourism market, Thomas Bieger and Andreas Wittmer studied the principle of the two industries, the tourism industry shows that the market can greatly promote the development of the aviation market, and air transport market is also a basic condition for the success of the tourism market. In addition, Thomas Bieger and Andreas Wittmer proposed an important point,which is that the success of the regional tourism industry must be closely linked with the air transport industry, and both of them must make full use of the government's supportive attitude to promote the common progress and growth of both sides[7].
The air transport industry and the tourism industry have a very close relationship, the development of air transport industry can promote the development of tourism, on the contrary, tourism also led to the development of the local air transport industry. We can establish a mechanism for the coordinated development of tourism and civil aviation, and promote the common development of the aviation industry and tourism, mutual benefit and win-win situation.
In a survey conducted by Forbes, Fortune magazine and the Hongkong board of trade, Yunnan is the destination of millions of millionaires in China, second only to Sanya and Hongkong. With the rise of business jets and private aircraft, business groups to buy business jets for business needs, the rich to buy private aircraft for travel and business needs has become a huge driving force for the development of the general aviation industry.Tourism began to turn to the sky, air travel format began to rise and will be explosive growth in the next ten years. Therefore, on the one hand, it requires the construction of civil service and private aircraft FBO, and also it needs economic boost to the general aviation industry chain on the other hand, in cooperation with domestic and foreign enterprises in the construction of general aviation industrial park.
Yunnan has unique geographical location and obvious location advantage. The construction of the airport in Yunnan has the advantages of less investment, fast speed, obvious use of the belt, and can give full play to the advantages of air transport, driving the development of Yunnan's economy. As the southwest portal, in the end, the Pan Pearl River Delta region and Southeast Asia, South Asia air bridge, is China's participation in the ASEAN Free Trade Area, in Bangladesh, India, Burma cooperation, regional center of the Greater Mekong region the development of cooperation. At the same time, Kunming Changshui International airport or international route intersection, which is one of the best areas to develop international routes. Kunming Changshui airport was put into operation, and it will promote economic restructuring in Yunnan, industrial upgrading and upgrading of industries, new industrial restructuring, economic and social development has become the engine and booster.
The construction of the new airport for the optimization of the layout of the National Airport strategy, promote the economic development of Yunnan will promote and improve the comprehensive competitiveness of modern new Kunming city center. In addition to the airline's economic development, Changshui International Airport built operation, then open the "airport area economy" era.
Kunming Changshui International airport is facing rare development opportunities. We should make full use of the opportunity of development, deepen the reform and open up new ideas,learn from the experience of developed, advanced cities and airports, and actively explore and study the establishment of air logistics park around the airport.
V. Conclusion
Traffic has a great impact on the development of tourism, but at the same time, tourism has played a significant role in promoting the development of transportation. According to the survey and analysis of the relations between airport and tourist. The natural distribution of tourism resources is basically fixed, but we can change the economic and social significance and the structure and mechanism of network space with the help of human activities. At present, the existing airport pattern, to achieve the "aviation to promote tourism, tourism with aviation" win-win model, relying on a short period of rapid change in the air transport network has been formed in the level and structure is not realistic. Therefore, we should focus on improving the value of tourism resources and rational use and allocation of existing airport network.
Civil aviation plays a positive role in promoting the development of tourism, Civil aviation and tourism is a pair of twin brothers, is a close cooperation, mutual benefit and win-win relationship.
Reference:
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